99% of the manta gill plate trade is in Guangzhou, China
Listed by the IUCN as ‘Vulnerable’, the primary threat to the Manta species is unsustainable fisheries driven by a growing demand for their gills used in a medically unproven ‘health tonic’. New data showing their acute biological vulnerability and the rapid escalation of threats to their populations indicate an urgent priority to conserve manta rays and their close relatives, mobula rays.
Although already known to be among the slowest to reproduce of all sharks and rays, newer data on manta ray reproduction suggest that they may reproduce even more slowly than previously believed, with a maximum lifetime reproduction potential estimated at only 5 to 15 offspring. Such extremely low reproductive capacity shows that manta and mobula rays are far more vulnerable to exploitation than previously known, and that immediate investment in their conservation is necessary to avoid continued rapid declines.
What is WildAid doing?:
Research conducted by WildAid, our partners, The Manta Trust and others, has uncovered new evidence of a rapidly escalating threat to manta ray species from increased demand for their gill plates, primarily in Guangzhou, China. Fishermen in key range states (e.g. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Peru, etc.) report sharp declines in catches despite increased fishing effort. Further indication of manta population declines is evidenced by traders reporting increased difficulty in sourcing manta gill plates and prices more than doubling over the previous two years as supply has plummeted.
Moving forward our goals are to:
- Use existing methodology, networks, and contacts from our China shark fin campaign to raise awareness in China of the impacts of manta gill plate consumption and urgency of manta ray conservation, and measurably reduce demand for gill plates in China, ultimately working towards ending the gill plate trade in Guangzhou.
- Pursue legal protection for manta and mobula rays in key range countries.
- Support implementation of manta and mobula protections through community outreach and enforcement strategies.
The Impact Timeline
Our original, global, and comprehensive research report, Manta Ray of Hope: The Global Threat to Manta and Mobula Rays, and media campaigns resulted in:
- Delegates to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) voted to protect both manta ray species in March 2013. In addition to providing critical data from Manta Ray of Hope investigations to the proposal to include manta rays on CITES Appendix II, the Manta Ray of Hope team supported sponsor countries and helped to win more votes for protecting manta rays through our research, films, and events leading up to and at CITES.
- The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism, a peer-reviewed study produced by the MROH team, was published in PlosONE journal. The study demonstrates the high value of mantas as a revenue-attracting tourism resource, capable of providing long-term, sustainable economic benefits to communities in manta range states and justifying manta ray protection.
- Support for implementation of CITES listings for mantas and sharks. In close collaboration with international and national organizations, we are assisting countries with implementation of the new CoP16 CITES listings for manta and shark species. We contributed to supporting documentation and produced a local media campaign, which are making unprecedented progress towards implementing manta ray protection in Indonesia, the country responsible for close to half of manta fisheries worldwide.
- Launch a demand reduction campaign in Guangzhou, China, where an estimated 99% of the market and consumption for manta and mobula gill plates are based.
- Continue to pursue protection campaigns in Peru, Sri Lanka, and other countries where manta rays are targeted by fisheries.
- Education and outreach (including localized media campaigns) and enforcement activities to build local support for manta / mobula protection and enforce manta protection laws and conservation measures globally. Initially focusing on Indonesia where plans include:
- Outreach, media and events to support manta regulation
- Indonesia-wide manta research and community engagement project to promote further conservation of manta rays.